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Ant 128A: Fox Field Guide (6)

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Ch. 3. Diagram 14 [Case 4]; p. 82. Matrilineal, matri- or uxori-local.


This should be looking quite familiar by now. It is the same basic matrilineal structure as appears in diagrams 4 and 11. All we have done (compared to 11) is shift the solid-line box showing the residential group to the left, so that now the husbands live with the females of the matrilineage (they are brought in as per curved arrows, and have a strong spousal role, as indicated by the strong marriage symbol, the equal sign). In turn the males of the matrilineage (shaded triangles) will move to live with their wives. Marriage and co-residence are more strongly instituted in this case. But, the groups created by lineality and residence are not the same.

Ch. 3. Diagram15 [Case 5]; p. 83. Cognatic, ambilocal.

In this case (which I have not drawn; try to figure it out from Fox alone), daughters stay in residence (natolocally) and bring in husbands, and/or sons stay in residence (natolocally) and bring in wives. Some sons and daughters will move to live residentially with their wives or husbands elsewhere. Residence then can go either to the male or female side.

Note: Fox insists that cases 1-5, the previous five diagrams, are primarily about residence. Lineal organization tends to follow from residence (and is implied in each of the cases), but is not primary. This follows from Fox's approach, in which adaptive group formation takes precedence, and the more abstract principle of descent falls into place as a consequence. Or, as he puts it: "They are de facto matrilineal, patrilineal or cognatic, not de jure" (p. 84). Pages 84-85 give a good summary, and if you are lost in the abstract elements of this, the cases that follow will be helpful.